Tuesday, December 15, 2015

The Man Who Saved A Mountain

Not just any mountain. The Lehigh Gap on the Kittatinny Mountain. My mountain. Our mountain. So many things are special about this saving. Let's begin with the man. Dan Kunkle. High school science teacher. He succeeded where others, including government organizations, failed.

Instead of something complicated, Dan believed The Gap could be reseeded by air drop via a helicopter. And that's how it was done. The Gap's deforesting over years occurred because of ecological succession; however, as a "local" I am very tempted to place blame elsewhere. Whatever the causes, the Gap was bare. And Dan Kunkle rescued it.

Today, in spite of a fire last summer, the Gap bounced back. Even in winter, you see signs of it thriving. And in a season specializing in gratitude, we are thankful for Dan Kunkle. Honored, rightly so.

DAN KUNKLE (left) receives the Appalachian Trail Conservancy Mid Atlantic Regional Partnership Committee's 2015 Partner of the Year Award from Anne Griffin. The award recognizes Kunkle's dedication, partnership and stewardship on behalf of the Appalachian National Scenic Trail. Griffin made the presentation April 11 at the Lehigh Gap Nature Center on behalf of the 12 trail-maintaining clubs of the Mid Atlantic region. (Barb Wiemann photo)

                                                The Greening of The Mountain
To learn more about this effort, read the following articles from Wildlife Activist by LGNC Executive Director Dan Kunkle, which describe what has been done to restore vegetation to the mountain at the Lehigh Gap.

Saturday, March 21, 2015

Marc Page: Explaining Camelid Behavior to the Uninformed

Marc Page is a renown llama and alpaca trainer. These notes derive from his keynote presentation at the PLAA Annual Meeting, March 21, 2015 at the Ramada Inn at State College PA.

Part 1: Llamas and Alpacas in The Wild

Llamas have a strong defense system to defend themselves; they only defend the territory that needs defending. Herd size is determined from available food; excess animals are driven away by the dominant male. Young animals are driven from the herd, along with the female. Less than 15 months of age in the wild; immature males driven out; solo males without a group; mixed group who agree to join for the winter. Harsh conditions make behavior more acceptable. Females can move among groups but adult males cannot.

Herd defense is to see and react to danger and flee. An anti-predatory defense. Llamas like high places and mountains. They will play a king of the mountain game but it's all about defense. Females can make good guard animals. Males will dispel juveniles by biting, spitting. A young llama will scream as they are chased, with the tale up over the back, and neck stretched is a sign of submission but violence can occur.

Llamas have developed fighting teeth and they need to be removed properly because a bite on the leg can bring a llama down. In the wild, the teeth are used to geld young llamas. Young male's fighting teeth need to be taken seriously.

On your farm, ears us is inquisitive or pointed toward you. But if the llama rushes to the fence line and screams, that's aggressive behavior. Humans need to be careful when a young male llama approaches you cautiously and submissive does not mean alpha adult male behavior but is approaching you as if you are another llama. Spitting and pushing is testing behavior.

Reason for the long gestation period of a llama or alpaca (11--11.5 months). Reason is because the llamas are "fully cooked" when they hit the ground. Mothers are not too fussy nor give them a lot of care. Aunts and uncles come over but that's it. As owners, we go out to make sure nose is clear...but in wild, in 15 minutes is all a cria has to acclimate to a migratory herd. The baby has to be ready to move on with the herd in one-half hour, dried out. Mother won't fuss much because that would compromise two animals.

Once they "get their legs" they are impossible to catch and everyone else is running defense for the baby. Wild behavior is the same on a farm. Llamas and native Americans did not lose their spirit or their identity. They are trying to re-awaken the spirit from before the reservation period. A guanaco presents some real challenges, harder than llamas.

Llamas have their own self-contained groupings on a farm. We create the groupings (somewhat artificial) and make decisions that in reality are not what they would choose for themselves. We disrupt the herd's social order by adding/removing animals, for example, by selling animals. You disrupt the herd and the herd must fill that position and re-arrange their dominance.

When you introduce a rescue llama to a herd, it is not a socialized animal as it is re-homed. Because these animals are not socialized and have no interaction with other animals, these animals do not fit the mix and the farm herd does not know what to do with them. Each llama has an invisible number and the herd knows what that number is. Higher ranks, 1-5, approach the hay first and expect the food to be there. Numbers 6-10 jockey for position, trying to find a place to eat. Body position is the first thing that happens. Turn and face the other animal. There could be a false rush. But in a well-maintained herd, they find their place relatively peacefully. In all seriousness, it is an aberrant behavior for one llama to spit at another llama within the herd.

Walking in a line with a herd with an animal in front and behind -- should be comfortable for the llamas. You stand back and let them figure it out. They will back down, even in deep snow, to get out of the way. Crias can get away with murder until that special day arrives. They are allowed a lot of discretion without a lot of consequences, but on that one day, when they are considered no longer a "baby," the social norms change and llamas will put the cria in its place.

Flefmen or flaymun, phonetically, is a behavior of llamas smelling manure. They do this to determine who is in the herd. They need to make sense of the new smell, so they lift their head, flay their nostrils, and go visit the herd. Originally, Marc used the transfer station/dump and it has become a social meeting place. That's what the manure pile is for llamas, especially males. Llamas become territorial with their manure and mark their territory. In the wild, the piles are like anthills and really well defined.

For females, everything changes. Manure became spread out because the "girls" were talking and marking the places easiest for them to have a conversation.

Stotting, Bill Franklin's word, is also called ponging, spronging and jump athletically. In summer, it's running for the joy of running, but in the wild, it's behavior to get the attention of the male llama.

Part 2: Training

To get a desired result, you train with respect between people and their animals. Llamas are easier to train than alpacas because the llamas lived in the village and were used as herd animals. Llamas and people developed a more cooperative spirit. Alpacas can be trained but it takes longer, because they were only rounded up once a year for shearing. You use the same approach for alpacas as llamas, but it just takes more time.

You must work with respect with your llamas and you must work without fear. You cannot be afraid of your animals. You need to handle your cria to desensitize it but you should not overdo it. Cria training is reinforcement throughout its early life. They do not absorb early training without reinforcement. John Mellon made an experiment with desensitizing 3 of 4 legs to see if it made a difference. He learned the 4 leg could never be handled.

Whatever a cria needs to learn happens in the first 24 hours. IF you are on vacation when they are born, you have a lot a catch up work to do. Marc has done extensive work with disabled populations. The largest form of bad behavior in llamas and alpacas is hand feeding your animals. Animals need to understand the difference and hand feeding is not the way to train. It teaches bad behavior because they think we can take the food away, and then they try other intrusive behaviors to establish herd position. No rough play with crias, no dog tug of war. When you do this, you encourage chest butting, pushing, shoving. Don't push a llama away because they learn they can push back.

Llamas must always always always move away when you enter their space. No clucking because it is a challenge. You do not walk around. Try going to the barn or pasture when llamas are resting and walk through them. They cannot eat while you are putting grain down and they may not eat hay while you are transporting it. They cannot have food until you present it for them. Llamas must get out of the way. Holding a bowl is the same as hand feeding. Put the bowl down; do not encourage spitting or bad behavior.

When llamas are impatiently waiting for their food, if you have 6 llamas give them 8 bowls because llamas will push around for position. Put less in each bowl.

Young and juvenile llamas need to be desensitized and each training session should have designated areas. They are opportunities for the llamas and you. Incidental touching means nothing to them. An actual lesson is better. It should occur in tall pens. When designing a space, give them a big playground but a smaller area near the barn so they can be closed, like the inside of a paddock with a closed gate. Entice them with food, let them calm down. Do not chase them. Training area can be structurally built or can be done with green panels. Five panels are better; llamas will lock themselves in a corner or cush down or go over or under a fence. You need to reduce flight training; llamas can jump 5 feet in the air from a standstill. So, they CAN jump into a van or trailer.

Regular training should occur at weaning. Halter it after it is standing. Do desensitizing on feet, legs, face, teeth; put a small pack on it. Because we ask a llama to put something on its back, it thinks it's a puma so we have to be careful with training. Do not spend a half hour or an hour till something is downpat. Lessons should be very short: minutes. Think what do I do to encourage what I want and how do I end it. Round pen avoids corners where llamas hide. Teach how to approach the llama. Reward by removing the pressure. Maintain distance and let the animal get the butterflies out of its system. When it slows down and stops, reward the stop by taking the pressure off and move back. Same is true for anything else you do: halter, mini-van loading, walking. Reduce flight zone and reward every single training approach.

There are so many second chances with llamas. Stop reinforcing what the llama does not want and reward him by eliminating the pressure. Back off. Have the proper layout for catching llamas. If you do not, take a 25 foot rope, two people, and make a portable fence. At the Big E, everyone knows the need to keep the llama contained. The call, "loose llama" goes out and exits are closed with a minimum of people. This all leads to one of the hardest ways to catch a llama: a helicopter. Never lasso a llama. The "llama drama" should have been averted if people would have stopped chasing them.

Marc and Carol Reigh both took proper means to respond to llama drama; Mark Hanner did not on MSNBC.

Thursday, March 19, 2015

Migratory Patterns of Bats in PA

Migratory tree bats are long-distance latitudinal migrants; remain active as long as prey is available. Migratory tree bats are especially difficult to study. Hibernating cave bats live in colonies but tree bats make long-distance migrations. Tree bats are difficult to study because they are solitary. The challenge to MTB is finding what they do when not migrating. Linear landscape features attract MTB.

Important to study them because wind turbines are a serious conservation threat for MTB--100,000 dies each year from just one tree farm area. Locust Ridge Wind Farm 75 percent fatality. Behaior during migration makes them susceptible.

Used acoustic monitoring to echolocate bats. SonoBat is program to identify the echoes. Activity Late June to late August for red bat. Roost surveys found evidence of southward migration in eastern bats different in Iowa. Peak fatality coincides with southward migration.

Hoary Bat's activity occurred at the river mid-April to late May and again in mid July. Northward migration late April to early May and southward mid-July to mid-September. Delaware River may serve as a migratory opportunity for these bats.

Silver-haired Bat: ridge and river activity mid-April to late-May and at the ridge from mid-August to early October. Northward migration late April to late June and southward late August to late October. This bat may be using both ridge and river as well as different landscape features.


Seasonal activity patterns documented provide evidence of migration. It coincides with the timing of migration documented in other studies. Evidence that the Hoary and Silver-haired bat migrate along linear landscape features. Evidence of southward migration coincides with the timing of peak fatality at a local wind farm. Migratory tree bats are the most susceptible to fatality in migration.

1. How can you encourage bats to populate your location? Bat houses: structure and location are important.

Friday, January 30, 2015

Absolutely Precious!

Makes me smile every time.

Sunday, December 7, 2014

Tracking Rattlesnakes: Predator/Prey Relationships & Conservation Issues

The Lehigh Gap Nature Center Speakers Bureau proudly presents Tracking Rattlesnakes: Predator/Prey Relationships & Conservation Issues.   According to the LGNC description:
Photo courtesy of The Morning Call
Howard Reinert, Ph.D., Professor of Biology at The College of New Jersey. Reinert and his advisor at Lehigh University, Dr. David Cundall, developed innovative tracking techniques to allow ecological studies of timber rattlers. These techniques are now used in tracking many species of snakes around the world.

You can follow the Lehigh Gap Nature Center on Facebook and visit their fine website where you will find so many options for return visits.

Today's presentation is Timber Rattlesnake Research: What's the BUZZ? Some background: Howard is a local person (Reading) who very early developed a knack for seeing things in the field. Learning quantitative statistics, Howard applied some of these techniques to habitat observations and tracking rattlesnakes and copperheads. He developed snake ecology by implanting transmitters in the species so they could be found at will. In the introduction to Howard and his presentation, Dr. Cundell said that no one alive knows more about rattlesnakes than Howard, whose goal is to preserve the ecology and habitats of the species to insure their longevity. Before beginning, Howard noted that he could speak indefinitely on the topic, so he intends to keep an eye to the clock.

Timber rattlesnakes appear predominantly in western PA in the mountainous regions. Some snakes are totally black but range to pale yellow to anywhere in between in variation. Local populations and how they evolve to their conditions determine the color. Sometimes very large snakes, about 72" but the largest in PA was seen by Howard at 54". Residing largely along the PA Appalachian Trail, timber rattlesnakes in PA are not an endangered species as they are in surrounding states. In PA, however, we maintain healthy populations as part of our native fauna.

How do you catch such a unique rattlesnake? Carefully. Their eyes are interesting as they bulge out. By the age of 4, Howard was a catcher of things along a creek, overturn rocks, and notice nature, with much credit going to his mother for inspiring him. By 7, Howard was catching his first snakes and this set him on the path to being a naturalist. In the early 1970s, people began putting transmitters in snakes so you could recapture them in their habitats and learn a lot, but only for a while because they "pass" the transmitters over time. And the whip antennas, while giving a greater range, still were not good internal tracking devices.

In his MS program at Lehigh University, Howard learned how a transmitter could be surgically implanted with whip antennas. Howard cites his LU professor Dr. Cundall for developing the idea. The benefit: an extended range for tracking snakes and learning from them. So what has he learned? Do timber rattlesnakes compete for resources with copperheads? Decades of sight observations suggested that these snakes populate the same habitat. Both pit vipers, copperheads and rattlesnakes would seem ideal competitors. After the study, Howard learned that rattlesnakes like wooded areas as habitats over rocky land masses, which were the copperhead's habitat.

Timber rattlesnakes really want to be in wooded mountainous areas whereas copperheads need open habitats for basking, incubating young inside, and skin shedding. Rattlesnakes eat in wooded areas and are impossible to find. You can hear it, but even within inches a rattlesnake will not move, rattle. They would just let you walk past them, that is until telemetry. In layman's language, a rattlesnake is an ideal predator and loves to catch prey while seemingly sleeping. They catch their prey by sensing heat--infrared rays from an animal--and the little animal is caught because snakes are great waiters. A snake can detect a small animal with its tongue better than a scent dog with his nose. Rattlesnakes select their logs and achieve success by waiting...

Is the forest tranquil? Not at all. Human interference--man and machines--do they have an impact on rattlesnakes?  Is logging harmful to rattlesnakes? Howard and colleagues set up a worse-case scenario and attempted to track and determine impact of high density rattlesnake populations by following 800 timber rattlesnakes. They tracked in 2003-2004 populations in tranquility. In 2005 they tracked and observed interactions between loggers and rattlesnakes to determine the logging response. In 2006, the after-logging impact was studied.

306 rattlesnakes were radiotracked with over 4000 field observations of rattlesnake behavior, the largest study of its kind of timber rattlesnakes. Mortality? From logging was amazingly low. Only 5% as compared to the normal 10% natural mortality. The good news: logging has relatively no impact on timber rattlesnake populations. Movement was not impacted either during logging. Snakes moved around but returned to original mating spots and do so for life. Often they travel 2 miles but the timber rattlesnake can travel over a mile a day during the breeding season.

Whether trucks, skidders, chain saws, loggers, nothing changed the patterns of life for timber rattlesnakes because it is THEIR home and they remain and return to it. No negative impact. And that's really good news for our understanding of the how man and snake can interact in the wild. Howard expected that the snakes would become frightened, leave. But they did not move. They held their ground. The snakes remained undisturbed by logging episodes, whatever they were.

In essence, the snake's response as a population: do what you want; it's my home and I'm not leaving. They did not vacate their habitat during logging, even during breeding and gestation cycles. Good news: timber rattlesnakes can tolerate disturbances, density increases and decreases, new foraging sites, new basking sites, different species composition and still ride out the changes, whatever they may be. So the bottom line is: rattlesnakes can adapt and survive, thrive, and rebound despite man's interference because they--the snakes--are an adaptable species.

Thursday, February 20, 2014

LAMAS on Parade: A Composite

Decided to aggregate the photography of Bob Wolfe and Chip Wood. The result is a slightly longer but delightful Animoto video. Enjoy!

If you are interested in joining GALA, click here.

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

What Do You Do With A Llama?

Since people know I own llamas, I am often asked what I do with them. Bob Wolfe, PLAAs Webmaster, answers that question. Enjoy the video.